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April 23, 2018

Global Status of Approved Genetically Modified Plants


 

Photo credit to Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

Photo credit to Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

 

Global Status of Approved Genetically Modified Plants

All of the information contained within this document is based on data obtained from a  global database of genetically modified plants. As indicated elsewhere, the reader should be aware that this database includes not only plants produced using recombinant DNA techniques (e.g.,genetically engineered or transgenic plants), but also plants with novel traits that may have been produced using more traditional methods, such as accelerated mutagenesis or plant breeding. These latter plants are only regulated in Canada. (We suggest that you bookmark the page.)

Crops and Traits

The following table provides a listing of novel traits by crop species. In each case, the number of events with a particular trait is also provided. For additional information on each crop x trait combination, follow the relevant link under the “Crop Name” column.

Crop Name Events Phenotypic Trait
Alfalfa 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Argentine Canola 1 Oxynil herbicide tolerance, including bromoxynil and ioxynil.
Argentine Canola 1 Modified seed fatty acid content, specifically high laurate levels and myristic acid production.
Argentine Canola 2 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Argentine Canola 3 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Argentine Canola 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically imazethapyr.
Argentine Canola 5 Glufosinate ammonium herbicide tolerance and fertility restored.
Argentine Canola 2 Modified seed fatty acid content, specifically high oleic acid, low linolenic acid content.
Carnation 1 Increased shelf-life due to reduced ethylene accumulation through introduction of truncated aminocyclopropane cyclase (ACC) synthase gene; Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance, specifically triasulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl.
Carnation 2 Modified flower colour; Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance, specifically triasulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl.
Chicory 1 Glufosinate ammonium herbicide tolerance and fertility restored.
Cotton 2 Resistance to lepidopteran pests including, but not limited to, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, tobacco budworm.
Cotton 1 Oxynil herbicide tolerance, including bromoxynil and ioxynil.
Cotton 1 Resistance to lepidopteran insects; oxynil herbicide tolerance, including bromoxynil.
Cotton 1 Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance, specifically triasulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl.
Cotton 2 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Cotton 1 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Cotton 6 Resistance to lepidopteran pests.
Cotton 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Cotton 5 Resistance to lepidopteran pests and glyphosate herbicide tolerance
Cotton 1 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium, and resistance to lepidopteran insect pests.
Creeping Bentgrass 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Flax, Linseed 1 Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance, specifically triasulfuron and metsulfuron-methyl.
Lentil 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically imazethapyr.
Maize 3 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Maize 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically imazethapyr.
Maize 2 Resistance to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis); glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Maize 2 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Maize 5 Resistance to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis); phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Maize 1 Resistance to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).
Maize 2 Glufosinate ammonium herbicide tolerance and male sterility
Maize 2 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.
Maize 1 Cyclohexanone herbicide tolerance, specifically sethoxydim.
Maize 1 Glufosinate ammonium herbicide tolerance and fertility restored.
Maize 1 Resistance to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).
Maize 1 Resistance to corn root worm (Coleopteran, Diabrotica sp.)
Maize 3 Resistance to lepidopteran pests.
Maize 3 Resistance to coleopteran and lepidopteran pests, and glufosinate ammonium tolerance
Maize 2 Resistance to coleopteran pests, particularly corn rootworm pests (Diabrotica spp.) and several lepidopteran pests of corn, including European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis), corn earworm (CEW,Helicoverpa zea), fall army worm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda), and black cutworm (BCW, Agrotis ipsilon); tolerance to glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium containing herbicides.
Maize 1 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium, and resistance to corn root worm (Coleoptera,Diabrotica spp.
Maize 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance and resistance to corn root worm (Coleoptera, Diabrotica sp.).
Maize 1 Resistance to corn root worm (Coleopteran, Diabrotica sp.) and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).
Maize 3 Resistance to coleopteran pests and glyphosate herbicide tolerance
Maize 3 Resistance to coleopteran and lepidopteran pests, and glyphosate herbicide tolerance
Maize 3 Resistance to lepidopteran pests and glyphosate herbicide tolerance
Maize 2 Resistance to lepidopteran pests and glufosinate ammonium herbicide tolerance
Maize 4 Resistance to lepidopteran pests, and stacked tolerance to glufosinate ammonium and glyphosate herbicides
Maize 1 Enhanced lysine level.
Maize 1 Enhanced lysine level and resistance to European corn borer
Maize 1 Resistance to corn root worm (Coleopteran, Diabrotica sp.)
Maize 1 Resistance to coleopteran and lepidopteran pests, and glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium tolerance
Maize 1 Modified amylase for ethanol production
Maize 1 Tolerance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides
Maize 1 Resistance to a range of lepidopteran insect pests; phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Maize 1 Stacked tolerance to phosphinothricin (glufosinate ammonium) and glyphosate herbicides.
Maize 1 Water use efficiency.
Maize 1 Multiple herbicide tolerance and resistance to lepidopteran insect pests.
Melon 1 Delayed ripening by introduction of a gene that results in degradation of a precursor of the plant hormone, ethylene.
Papaya 2 Resistance to viral infection, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV).
Plum 1 Resistance to plum pox virus (PPV)
Polish Canola 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Polish Canola 1 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Potato 2 Resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say).
Potato 1 Resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say); resistance to potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV).
Potato 1 Resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say); resistance to potato virus Y (PVY).
Potato 1 Altered starch composition, increased amylopectin to amylose ratio
Rice 2 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Rice 2 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.
Rice 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically imazethapyr.
Soybean 2 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Soybean 4 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Soybean 1 Modified seed fatty acid content, specifically high oleic acid expression.
Soybean 1 Modified seed fatty acid content, specifically low linolenic acid
Soybean 1 Tolerance to glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides
Soybean 1 Modified seed fatty acid content, specifically high oleic acid, low linolenic acid content.
Soybean 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.
Soybean 1 Resistance to lepidopteran pests of soybean including velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens)
Soybean 1 Resistance to lepidopteran pests and glyphosate herbicide tolerance
Squash 1 Resistance to viral infection, watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV).
Squash 1 Resistance to viral infection, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV).
Sugar Beet 1 Phosphinothricin (PPT) herbicide tolerance, specifically glufosinate ammonium.
Sugar Beet 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Sugar Beet 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Sunflower 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.
Tobacco 1 Oxynil herbicide tolerance, including bromoxynil and ioxynil.
Tobacco 1 Nicotine reduced.
Tomato 1 Increased shelf-life (delayed ripening) due to reduced ethylene accumulation through introduction of truncated aminocyclopropane cyclase (ACC) synthase gene.
Tomato 1 Resistance to lepidopteran pests including, but not limited to, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, tobacco budworm.
Tomato 1 Delayed ripening by introduction of a gene that results in degradation of a precursor of the plant hormone, ethylene.
Tomato 1 Delayed ripening by introduction of a gene that results in degradation of a precursor of the plant hormone, ethylene.
Tomato 2 Delayed softening through suppression of polygalacturonase (PG) enzyme activity.
Wheat 3 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically Cyanamid AC299 263 (imazamox, active ingredient).
Wheat 1 Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Wheat 1 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, specifically imazethapyr.
Wheat 2 Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.

 

Genetic Elements

Currently approved genetically modified plants have been developed to express one, or more, of the following basic phenotypic characteristics: Agronomic performance;  Amino acid composition;  Fatty acid composition;  Fertility restoration;  Herbicide tolerance;  Insect resistance;  Lepidopteran resistance;  Male sterility;  Modified color;  Mutations;  Nicotine reduced;  Plant quality;  Ripening delayed;  Selectable marker;  Starch hydrolysis;  Virus resistance;

The following table correlates these traits with the genes, including their sources, that have been incorporated into plants in either native or modified form. In cases where modified plants have been produced via traditional cross-breeding or accelerated mutagenesis techniques, the mutated or target genes are indicated, where known. For additional information on each trait x genetic element combination, follow the highlighted links under the “Trait” heading.

Trait Genetic Element Source
Agronomic performance cold shock protein B Bacillus subtilis
Amino acid composition dihydrodipicolinate synthase Corynebacterium glutamicum
Fatty acid composition
Fatty acid composition delta(12)-fatty acid dehydrogenase Glycine max
Fatty acid composition fatty acid desaturase NULL
Fatty acid composition thioesterase Umbellularia californica
Fertility restoration barnase ribonuclease inhibitor Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Herbicide tolerance 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase Agrobacterium tumefaciens CP4
Herbicide tolerance 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase Z. mays
Herbicide tolerance acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit Arabidopsis thaliana
Herbicide tolerance acetolactate synthase chimera of 2 resistant AHAS genes (S4-Hr4)
Herbicide tolerance acetolactate synthase chlorsulfuron tolerant line of A. thaliana
Herbicide tolerance acetolactate synthase chlorsulfuron tolerant Nicotiana tabacum
Herbicide tolerance acetolactate synthase Glycine max
Herbicide tolerance acetolactate synthase Z. mays
Herbicide tolerance glyphosate N-acetyltransferase Bacillus licheniformis
Herbicide tolerance glyphosate oxidoreductase Ochrobactrum anthropi
Herbicide tolerance nitrilase Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies ozanae
Herbicide tolerance phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase S. hygroscopicus
Herbicide tolerance phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase S. viridochromogenes
Insect resistance chimeric cry1 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (Btk HD-1) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (Btk HD-1) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (Btk HD-1) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (Btk HD-1) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (Btk HD-1) Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk)
Insect resistance cry1F delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai
Insect resistance cry1F delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai
Insect resistance Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis
Insect resistance Cry2Ab2 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis
Insect resistance Cry34Ab1 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis strain PS149B1
Insect resistance Cry35Ab1 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis strain PS149B1
Insect resistance cry3A delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Tenebrionis
Insect resistance cry3Bb1 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis
Insect resistance Cry3Bb1 delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis strain EG4691
Insect resistance cry9c delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Tolworthi
Insect resistance protease inhibitor S. tuberosum
Insect resistance vegetative insecticidal protein Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88
Insect resistance VIP3A vegetative insecticidal protein Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88
Lepidopteran resistance cry1F delta-endotoxin Bacillus thuringiensis
Male sterility barnase ribonuclease Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Male sterility DNA adenine methylase Escherichia coli
Modified color dihydroflavonol reductase Petunia hybrida
Modified color flavonoid 3p, 5p hydroxylase Petunia hybrida
Modified color flavonoid 3p, 5p hydroxylase Viola sp.
Mutations acetolactate synthase Brassica napus
Mutations acetolactate synthase Helianthus annuus
Mutations acetolactate synthase Lens culinaris
Mutations acetolactate synthase Oryza sativa
Mutations acetolactate synthase Triticum aestivum
Mutations acetolactate synthase Z. mays
Mutations acetyl-CoA-carboxylase Z. mays
Nicotine reduced nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase (carboxylating) Nicotiana tabaccum
Plant quality granule-bound starch synthase Solanum tuberosum
Ripening delayed 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid synthase Dianthus caryophyllus L.
Ripening delayed 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase Pseudomonas chlororaphis
Ripening delayed aminocyclopropane cyclase synthase Tomato
Ripening delayed polygalacturonase Tomato
Ripening delayed S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase E. coli bacteriophage T3
Starch hydrolysis thermostable alpha-amylase Thermococcales spp.
Virus resistance Coat protein Plum pox virus
Virus resistance helicase potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) orf 2
Virus resistance replicase (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) orf 1
Virus resistance viral coat protein Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus
Virus resistance viral coat protein papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV)
Virus resistance viral coat protein potato potyvirus Y (PVY) strain O (common strain)
Virus resistance viral coat protein Watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2
Virus resistance viral coat protein Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus

 

Regulatory Approvals

The following table provides a summary of the regulatory approval status for each genetically modified crop. Follow the highlighted links under the “Crop” column to view detailed information for each approved event.

Crop, Trait, Identifier Country Planting Food/Feed Food Meet Mktg
Alfalfa (Herbicide tolerance)J101, J163 Australia 2006
Canada 2005 2005 2005
Japan 2006 2005 2006
Korea 2007 2007
Mexico 2005
Philippines 2006 2006
United States 2004
Argentine Canola (Glufosinate)HCN10 Canada 1995 1995 1995
Japan 1997 1997 1998
United States 1995 1995
Argentine Canola (Glufosinate)HCN92 Australia 2003 2001
Canada 1995 1995 1995
China 2004
European Union 1998
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2005 2008
Mexico 1999
South Africa 2001
United States 2002 1995
Argentine Canola (Glufosinate)T45 (HCN28) Australia 2003 2002
Canada 1996 1997 1995
China 2004
European Union 2009
Japan 1997 1997 1997
Korea 2005 2005
Mexico 2001
United States 1998 1998
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance)GT200 Canada 1996 1997 1997
Japan 2006 2001 2001
United States 2003 2002
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance)GT73, RT73 Australia 2003 2000
Canada 1995 1994 1995
China 2004
European Union 1997 2005
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2003 2005
Mexico 1996
Philippines 2003 2003
United States 1999 1995
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance)NS738, NS1471, NS1473 Canada 1995 1995 1995
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)MS1, RF1 =>PGS1 Australia 2003 2002
Canada 1995 1995 1995
China 2004
European Union 2005 1996
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2005 2008
South Africa 2001
United States 2002 1996
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)MS1, RF2 =>PGS2 Australia 2003 2002
Canada 1995 1995 1995
China 2004
European Union 2005 1997
Japan 1997 1997 1997
Korea 2005 2008
South Africa 2001
United States 2002 1996
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)MS8xRF3 Australia 2003 2002
Canada 1996 1997 1996
China 2004
European Union 2005
Japan 1998 1997 1998
Korea 2005 2005
Mexico 2004
South Africa 2001
United States 1999 1996
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)PHY14, PHY35 Japan 1997 1997 1998
Argentine Canola (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)PHY36 Japan 1997 1997 1997
Argentine Canola (Oil content)23-18-17, 23-198 Canada 1996 1996 1996
United States 1994 1994
Argentine Canola (Oil content)45A37, 46A40 Canada 1996
Argentine Canola (Oil content)46A12, 46A16 Canada 1996
Argentine Canola (Oxynil)OXY-235 Australia 2002
Canada 1997 1997 1997
China 2004
Japan 1998 1999 1999
United States 1999
Carnation (Delayed ripening)66 Australia 1995
European Union 1998 1998
Carnation (Flower colour)4, 11, 15, 16 Australia 1995
European Union 1997
Carnation (Flower colour)959A, 988A, 1226A, 1351A, 1363A, 1400A Colombia 2000
European Union 1998 1998
Chicory (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)RM3-3, RM3-4, RM3-6 European Union 1996 1996
United States 1997 1997
Cotton (Glufosinate)LLCotton25 Australia 2006 2006
Brazil 2008 2008
Canada 2004 2004
China 2006
European Union 2008
Japan 2004 2006
Korea 2005 2005
Mexico 2006
United States 2003 2003
Cotton (Herbicide tolerance)GHB614 Australia 2009
Brazil 2010 2010
Canada 2008 2008
Korea 2010
Mexico 2008
United States 2009 2008
Cotton (Herbicide tolerance)MON1445/1698 Argentina 1999 2001 2001
Australia 2000 2000
Brazil 2008 2008
Canada 1996 1996
China 2004
Colombia 2003 2003
European Union 2005
Japan 1997 1997 1998
Korea 2003 2004
Mexico 2000
Philippines 2003 2003
South Africa 2000 2000
United States 1995 1995
Cotton (Herbicide tolerance)MON88913 Australia 2006 2006
Canada 2005 2005
China 2007
Colombia 2010
Japan 2005 2006
Korea 2006 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2005
South Africa 2007 2007
United States 2004 2005
Cotton (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)LLCotton25 x MON15985 Japan 2007 2006 2007
Korea 2007 2008
Mexico 2008
Cotton (Insect resistance)281-24-236 Canada 2005 2005
Japan 2005
Mexico 2004
United States 2004 2004
Cotton (Insect resistance)3006-210-23 Canada 2005 2005
Japan 2005
Mexico 2004
United States 2004 2004
Cotton (Insect resistance)COT102 Australia 2005
Mexico 2010
United States 2005
Cotton (Insect resistance)COT67B Australia 2009
United States 2009
Cotton (Insect resistance)DAS-21Ø23-5 x DAS-24236-5 Australia 2005
Brazil 2009 2009
Japan 2005
Korea 2005 2008
Mexico 2004
United States 2004 2004
Cotton (Insect resistance)Event-1 India 2006
Cotton (Insect resistance)MON 15985 Australia 2002 2002
Brazil 2009 2009
Burkina Faso 2008
Canada 2003 2003
China 2006
Colombia 2009
European Union 2005
India 2006
Japan 2002 2003
Korea 2003 2004
Mexico 2003
Philippines 2003 2003
South Africa 2003 2003
United States 2002 2002
Cotton (Insect resistance)MON531/757/1076 Argentina 1998 1998 1998
Australia 1996 1996 1996
Brazil 2005 2005 2005
Canada 1996 1996
China 2004 2004
Colombia 2003 2003
European Union 2005
India 2002
Japan 1997 1997 1997
Korea 2003 2004
Mexico 1997 1997 1997
Philippines 2004 2004
South Africa 1997 1997 1997
United States 1995 1995
Cotton (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)DAS-21Ø23-5 x DAS-24236-5 x MON-Ø1445-2 Japan 2006 2006
Korea 2006
Mexico 2005
Cotton (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)DAS-21Ø23-5 x DAS-24236-5 x MON88913 Japan 2006 2006
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Cotton (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON-15985-7 x MON-Ø1445-2 Australia 2002
European Union 2005
Japan 2005
Korea 2004 2008
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2004 2004
Cotton (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON-ØØ531-6 x MON-Ø1445-2 Argentina 2009 2009 2009
Australia 2003
Brazil 2009 2009
Colombia 2008
European Union 2005
Japan 2004
Korea 2004 2008
Mexico 2002
Philippines 2004 2004
South Africa 2005 2005
Cotton (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON15985 x MON88913 Australia 2006
Colombia 2010
Japan 2005 2006
Korea 2006 2008
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2006 2006
South Africa 2007 2007
Cotton (Lepidopteran pests + oxynil)31807/31808 Canada 1998
Japan 1998 1999 1999
United States 1997 1998
Cotton (Oxynil)BXN Australia 2002
Canada 1996 1996
Japan 1997 1997 1998
Mexico 1996
United States 1994 1994
Cotton (Sulfonylurea)19-51A United States 1996 1996
Creeping Bentgrass (Herbicide tolerance)ASR368 United States 2003
Flax, Linseed (Sulfonylurea)FP967 Canada 1996 1998 1996
United States 1999 1998
Lentil (Herbicide tolerance)RH44 Canada 2004 2004 2004
Maize (Agronomic performance)MON87460 Canada 2010 2011 2010
Colombia 2011
United States 2011
Maize (Cyclohexanone)DK404SR Canada 1996 1997 1996
Maize (ECB)MON80100 United States 1995 1996
Maize (ECB + glyphosate)MON802 Canada 1997 1997 1997
Japan 1997
United States 1997 1996
Maize (ECB + glyphosate)MON809 Canada 1996 1996 1996
Japan 1997 1998
United States 1996 1996
Maize (Glufosinate)B16 (DLL25) Canada 1996 1996 1996
Japan 1999 1999 2000
Korea 2004
Philippines 2003 2003
Taiwan 2003
United States 1995 1996
Maize (Glufosinate)T14, T25 Argentina 1998 1998 1998
Australia 2002
Brazil 2007 2007
Canada 1996 1997 1996
China 2004
Colombia 2012
European Union 1998 1998
Japan 1997 1997 1997
Korea 2003 2004
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2003 2003
South Africa 2001
Taiwan 2002
United States 1995 1995
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)3751IR Canada 1996 1994 1996
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)Event 98140 Canada 2009 2009 2009
Korea 2010
United States 2009 2008
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)EXP1910IT Canada 1996 1997 1996
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)GA21 Argentina 1998 2005
Australia 2000
Brazil 2008 2008
Canada 1998 1999 1998
China 2004
Colombia 2012
European Union 2006 2005
Japan 1998 1999 1999
Korea 2002 2005
Mexico 2002
Philippines 2009 2003 2003
Russia 2007 2007
South Africa 2002
Taiwan 2003
United States 1997 1996
Uruguay 2011 2011
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)IT Canada 1998
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)MON832 Canada 1997
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)NK603 Argentina 2004 2004
Australia 2002
Brazil 2008 2008
Canada 2001 2001 2001
China 2005
Colombia 2004
El Salvador 2009
European Union 2004 2004
Japan 2001 2001 2001
Korea 2002 2004
Mexico 2002
Philippines 2005 2003
South Africa 2002 2002
Taiwan 2003
United States 2000 2000
Uruguay 2011 2011
Maize (Herbicide tolerance)NK603 x T25 Japan 2010 2010 2010
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)676, 678, 680 United States 1998 1998
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)MS3 Canada 1996 1997 1998
United States 1996 1996
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + fertility)MS6 United States 1999 2000
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)176 Argentina 1996 1998 1998
Australia 2001
Canada 1996 1995 1996
China 2004
European Union 1997 1997 1997
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2003 2006
Netherlands 1997 1997
Philippines 2003 2003
South Africa 2001
Switzerland 1997 1997
Taiwan 2004
United Kingdom 1997
United States 1995 1995
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)BT11 (X4334CBR, X4734CBR) Argentina 2001 2001 2001
Australia 2001
Brazil 2007 2007
Canada 1996 1996 1996
China 2004
Colombia 2008 2009 2008
European Union 1998 1998
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2003 2006
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2005 2003 2003
Russia 2003
South Africa 2003 2002
Switzerland 1998 1998
Taiwan 2004
United Kingdom 1998 1998
United States 1996 1996
Uruguay 2004 2004
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)BT11 x GA21 x MIR162 Brazil 2011 2011
Colombia 2012
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)BT11 x MIR162 United States 2009
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)CBH-351 United States 1998 1998
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)DAS-59122-7 Australia 2005
Canada 2005 2005 2005
China 2006
Colombia 2011
European Union 2007
Japan 2006 2006 2006
Korea 2005 2005
Mexico 2004
Philippines 2006 2006
Taiwan 2005
United States 2005 2004
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)DBT418 Australia 2002
Canada 1997 1997 1997
Japan 1999 1999
Korea 2004
Philippines 2003 2003
Taiwan 2003
United States 1997 1997
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)MON88017 Argentina 2010 2010
Australia 2006
Canada 2006 2006 2006
China 2007
Colombia 2011
European Union 2009
Japan 2006 2006 2006
Korea 2006 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2006
Taiwan 2006
United States 2005 2005
Maize (Herbicide tolerance + insect resistance)TC1507 Argentina 2005 2005
Australia 2003
Brazil 2008 2008
Canada 2002 2002 2002
China 2004
Colombia 2006
El Salvador 2009
European Union 2006 2005
Japan 2002 2002 2002
Korea 2002 2004
Mexico 2003
Philippines 2003 2003
South Africa 2002
Taiwan 2003
United States 2001 2001
Uruguay 2011 2011
Maize (Insect resistance)DAS-06275-8 Canada 2006 2006 2006
Japan 2008 2007 2008
United States 2004 2004
Maize (Insect resistance)MIR162 Argentina 2011 2010
Australia 2009
Brazil 2009 2009
Canada 2010 2010 2010
Colombia 2012 2010
Japan 2010 2010 2010
Korea 2010 2010
Mexico 2010
Philippines 2010 2010
Taiwan 2009
United States 2010 2008
Maize (Insect resistance)MIR604 Argentina 2012 2012 2012
Australia 2006
Canada 2007 2007 2007
China 2008
Colombia 2012
European Union 2009
Japan 2007 2007 2007
Korea 2007 2008
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2007
Russia 2007 2008
Taiwan 2007
United States 2007 2007
Maize (Insect resistance)MON810 Argentina 1998 1998 1998
Australia 2000
Brazil 2007 2007
Canada 1997 1997 1997
China 2004
Colombia 2003
European Union 1998 1998 1998
Japan 1996 1997 1997
Korea 2002 2004
Mexico 2002
Philippines 2002 2002 2002
South Africa 1997 1997 1997
Switzerland 2000 2000
Taiwan 2002
United States 1995 1996
Uruguay 2003 2003
Maize (Insect resistance)MON863 Australia 2003
Canada 2003 2003 2003
China 2004
Colombia 2011
European Union 2006 2005
Japan 2002 2002 2001
Korea 2003 2004
Mexico 2003
Philippines 2003 2003
Taiwan 2003
United States 2003 2001
Maize (Insect resistance)MON863 x MON810 European Union 2005
Japan 2004 2004
Korea 2004
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2004 2004
Maize (Insect resistance)MON89034 Argentina 2010 2010
Australia 2008
Brazil 2009 2009
Canada 2008 2008 2008
Colombia 2010
European Union 2009
Japan 2008 2007 2008
Korea 2009 2009
Philippines 2009 2009
Taiwan 2008
United States 2008 2007
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)BT11 x GA21 Argentina 2009 2009
Brazil 2009 2009
Canada 2005
Colombia 2012
Japan 2007 2007
Korea 2006 2008
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2007 2007
Uruguay 2011 2011
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)BT11 x MIR162 x MIR604 x GA21 Colombia 2012
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)BT11 x MIR604 x GA21 Canada 2007
Japan 2007
Korea 2008 2008
Mexico 2008
Philippines 2008 2008
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)DAS-59122-7 x NK603 Canada 2005
European Union 2009
Japan 2006 2005 2006
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2006 2006
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)GA21 x MON810 European Union 2005
Japan 2003
Korea 2004
Philippines 2004 2004
South Africa 2003
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MIR604 x GA21 Japan 2007 2007
Korea 2008 2008
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2007 2007
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON810 x MON88017 Canada 2006
Colombia 2011
Japan 2005
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2006 2006
Taiwan 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON863 x MON810 x NK603 Canada 2004
Japan 2004 2004
Korea 2004
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2005 2004
Taiwan 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON863 x NK603 European Union 2005
Japan 2004 2004
Korea 2004
Mexico 2004
Philippines 2004 2004
Taiwan 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON89034 x MON88017 Argentina 2010 2010
Colombia 2011
Japan 2008
Korea 2009 2009
Mexico 2010
Philippines 2009
Taiwan 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON89034 x NK603 Colombia 2010
Japan 2008
Korea 2010 2009
Mexico 2010
Philippines 2009 2009
Taiwan 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON89034 x TC1507 x MON88017 x DAS-59122-7 Canada 2009
Colombia 2010
Japan 2009 2009 2009
Korea 2009 2009
Mexico 2010
Philippines 2010
Taiwan 2009 2009
United States 2009
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)NK603 x MON810 Argentina 2007 2005
Brazil 2009 2009
Canada 2001
Colombia 2009
El Salvador 2009
European Union 2007
Japan 2004 2004
Korea 2004
Mexico 2004
Philippines 2005 2004 2004
South Africa 2007 2004
Taiwan 2009
Uruguay 2011 2011
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)T25 x MON810 Colombia 2012
Japan 2003
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)TC1507 x MON810 Argentina 2013 2013
Brazil 2011 2011
Colombia 2012
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)TC1507 x MON810 x NK603 Argentina 2013 2013
Canada 2011 2011
Colombia 2012
Maize (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)TC1507 x NK603 Argentina 2008 2006
Brazil 2009 2009
Canada 2006
Colombia 2010
European Union 2007
Japan 2005 2005
Korea 2004
Mexico 2004
Philippines 2006 2006
Maize (Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance)BT11 x MIR162 x MIR604 United States 2009
Maize (Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance)BT11 x MIR604 Canada 2007
Colombia 2012
Japan 2007
Korea 2007 2007
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2007 2007
Maize (Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance)DAS-59122-7 x TC1507 x NK603 Canada 2006
Colombia 2012
Japan 2006 2005 2006
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2007 2007
Maize (Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance)TC1507 x DAS-59122-7 Canada 2006
Japan 2006 2005 2006
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2007 2007
Maize (Plant quality)Event 3272 Australia 2008
Canada 2008 2008 2008
China 2013
Colombia 2013
Japan 2010 2010 2010
Korea 2011 2011
Mexico 2008
Philippines 2008
Russia 2010 2010
Taiwan 2010 2010
United States 2011 2007
Maize (Plant quality)LY038 Australia 2007
Canada 2006 2006 2006
Colombia 2009
Japan 2007 2007 2007
Mexico 2007
Philippines 2006
Taiwan 2006
United States 2006 2005
Maize (Plant quality + insect resistance)MON810 x LY038 Japan 2007 2007 2007
Philippines 2006 2006
Melon (Delayed ripening)A, B United States 1999
Papaya (Virus resistant)55-1/63-1 Canada 2003
United States 1996 1997
Papaya (Virus resistant)X17-2 United States 2009 2008
Plum (Virus resistant)C5 United States 2007 2009
Polish Canola (Glufosinate)HCR-1 Canada 1998 1998
Polish Canola (Herbicide tolerance)ZSR500/502 Canada 1997 1997
Potato (CPB)ATBT04-6, ATBT04-27, ATBT04-30, ATBT04-31, ATBT04-36, SPBT02-5, SPBT02-7 Australia 2001
Canada 1997 1996 1997
Japan 1997
Korea 2004
Philippines 2003 2003
United States 1996 1996
Potato (CPB)BT6, BT10, BT12, BT16, BT17, BT18, BT23 Canada 1995 1995 1995
Japan 1996
Korea 2004
Mexico 1996
Philippines 2003 2003
United States 1995 1994
Potato (CPB + virus resistant)RBMT15-101, SEMT15-02, SEMT15-15 Australia 2001
Canada 1999 1999 1999
Japan 2003
Korea 2004
Mexico 2001
Philippines 2003 2003
United States 1999 1998
Potato (CPB + virus resistant)RBMT21-129, RBMT21-350, RBMT22-082 Australia 2001
Canada 1999 1999 1999
Japan 2001
Korea 2004
Mexico 2001
Philippines 2004 2004
United States 1998 1998
Potato (Plant quality)EH92-527-1 European Union 2010 2010 2010
Rice (Glufosinate)LLRICE06, LLRICE62 Australia 2008
Canada 2006 2006
Colombia 2008
Mexico 2007
United States 1999 2000
Rice (Glufosinate)LLRICE601 Colombia 2008
United States 2006
Rice (Herbicide tolerance)CL121, CL141, CFX51 Canada 2002 2002
Rice (Herbicide tolerance)IMINTA-1, IMINTA-4 Canada 2006 2006
Rice (Herbicide tolerance)PWC16 Canada 2003 2002
Soybean (Glufosinate)A2704-12, A2704-21, A5547-35 Argentina 2011 2011
Australia 2004
Brazil 2010 2010 2010
Canada 1999 2000 2000
China 2007
European Union 2008
Japan 1999 2002 2003
Korea 2009 2009
Mexico 2003
Philippines 2009 2009
South Africa 2001
Taiwan 2007
United States 1996 1998
Soybean (Glufosinate)A5547-127 Argentina 2011 2011
Brazil 2010 2010 2010
Canada 2000 2000 2000
Japan 2006 2003 2006
Mexico 2003
United States 1998 1998
Soybean (Glufosinate)GU262 United States 1998 1998
Soybean (Glufosinate)W62, W98 United States 1996 1998
Soybean (Herbicide tolerance)BPS-CV127-9 Brazil 2009 2009
Colombia 2012
Soybean (Herbicide tolerance)DP356043 Australia 2010
Canada 2009 2009 2009
Colombia 2010
Japan 2009 2009 2009
Korea 2009
Mexico 2008
Philippines 2009 2009
Taiwan 2009
United States 2008 2007
Soybean (Herbicide tolerance)GTS 40-3-2 Argentina 1996 1996 1996
Australia 2000
Brazil 1998 1998 1998
Canada 1995 1996 1995
China 2004
Colombia 2005
Czech Republic 2001 2001 2001
European Union 2005 1996
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2000 2004
Mexico 1998 1998 1998
Paraguay 2004 2004
Philippines 2003 2003
Russia 1999 1999
South Africa 2001 2001 2001
Switzerland 1996 1996
Taiwan 2002
United Kingdom 1996 1996
United States 1994 1994
Uruguay 1997 1997 1997
Soybean (Herbicide tolerance)MON89788 Australia 2008
Canada 2007 2007 2007
China 2008
Colombia 2010
European Union 2008
Japan 2008 2007 2008
Korea 2009 2009
Mexico 2008
Philippines 2007
Taiwan 2007
United States 2007 2007
Soybean (Insect resistance)MON87701 Canada 2010 2010 2010
United States 2011
Soybean (Insect resistance + herbicide tolerance)MON87701 x MON89788 Colombia 2012
Soybean (Oil content)DP-305423 Australia 2010
Canada 2009 2009 2009
Mexico 2008
United States 2010 2009
Soybean (Oil content)G94-1, G94-19, G168 Australia 2000
Canada 2000 2000 2000
Japan 1999 2001 2000
United States 1997 1997
Soybean (Oil content)OT96-15 Canada 2001
Squash (Virus resistant)CZW-3 Canada 1998
United States 1996 1994
Squash (Virus resistant)ZW20 Canada 1998
United States 1994 1997
Sugar Beet (Glufosinate)T120-7 Canada 2001 2000 2001
Japan 1999 1999
United States 1998 1998
Sugar Beet (Herbicide tolerance)GTSB77 Australia 2002
Japan 2003
Philippines 2004 2004
United States 1998 1998
Sugar Beet (Herbicide tolerance)H7-1 Australia 2005
Canada 2005 2005 2005
Colombia 2005
European Union 2007
Japan 2007 2003 2007
Korea 2006
Mexico 2006
Philippines 2005 2005
United States 2005 2004
Sunflower (Herbicide tolerance)X81359 Canada 2005 2003 2005
Tobacco (Oxynil)C/F/93/08-02 European Union 1994
Tobacco (Plant quality)Vector 21-41 United States 2002
Tomato (Delayed ripening)1345-4 Canada 1995
Mexico 1998
United States 1995 1994
Tomato (Delayed ripening)35 1 N United States 1996 1996
Tomato (Delayed ripening)8338 United States 1995 1994
Tomato (Delayed ripening)B, Da, F Canada 1996
Mexico 1996
United States 1995 1994
Tomato (Delayed ripening)FLAVR SAVR Canada 1995
Japan 1996 1997
Mexico 1995 1995 1995
United States 1992 1994
Tomato (Insect resistance)5345 Canada 2000
United States 1998 1998
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)AP205CL Canada 2004 2003 2004
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)AP602CL Canada 2003 2003 2003
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)BW255-2, BW238-3 Canada 2006 2006 2006
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)BW7 Canada 2007 2007 2007
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)MON71800 Colombia 2004
United States 2004
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)SWP965001 Canada 1998 1999 1999
Wheat (Herbicide tolerance)Teal 11A Canada 2004 2004 2004

Issues surrounding Genetically Modified Plants

“The first reported recombination of genetic material was in 1973, so this technology is just over 30 years old. One of the first applications was the production of insulin by bacteria (insulin to be used for treating diabetics was previously derived from pig pancreas); the recombinant insulin product was approved by the FDA in 1982. The bacteria used for this purpose is a strain of E. coli, a common organism (it is a major bacteria in the human intestinal tract), into which the human insulin gene is inserted. The advantage of this technology is that the product matches human insulin exactly and it is cheaper to produce; the pig product is more likely to cause allergic reactions.

http://www.itmonline.org/arts/gmo.htm

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