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November 11, 2019

Space Law Policy including Moon Treaty, & Space Treaty International


The following documents have  been created In light of the advances in war technology throughout the world, particularly in US, China &  Russia.  The documents are  intended as informational to all who delve into government operations, such as world treaties and agreements when it comes to defense. It is factually recorded and well documented. Click on any of the headings to read more. Pay special attention to the OUTER SPACE TREATY. Please leave any questions or comments in the comment section and we will answer you promptly.As well, if you have additional information on the subject of Space War, please leave us a message.

Space Law and Policy Library
International Agreements
United States Instruments
Proposed US Legislation
Non-US Documents
Articles and Essays
Reports and Position Papers
University Lesson Plans
Space Law & Policy Bibliography
 

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

 The Outer Space Treaty
 The Rescue and Return Agreement
 The Liability Convention
 The Registration Convention
 The Moon Treaty
 Agreement Relating To The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
 Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization
 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
 The ABM Treaty
 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space
 Principles Governing Direct Television Broadcasting
 Principles Relating to Remote Sensing
 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space
 Declaration on International Cooperation in Outer Space

General Assembly Resolutions

 1472 (XIV). International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 1721 (XVI). International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 33/16. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
 37/83. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 37/89. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 37/90. 2nd UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
 38/70. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 39/59. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 39/96. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 40/87. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 41/53. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 41/65. Principles relating to the remote sensing of the Earth from space
 42/33. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 42/68. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 43/56. International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 43/70. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 44/46. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 44/112. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 45/55. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 45/72. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 46/33. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 46/45. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 47/51. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 47/67. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 48/39. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 48/74. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 49/33. Enlargement of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
 49/34. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, including the question of the review of the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
 50/27. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 51/44. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 52/37. Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 52/56. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space
 53/45. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
 54/53. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
 54/67. International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space [pdf]
 54/68. Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
 55/32. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
 55/122. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
 56/23. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
 57/57. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
 57/116. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
 58/36. Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space [pdf]
 58/89. International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]
 58/90. Review of the Implementation of the recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [pdf]

Bilateral Space Station Agreements

 Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Canadian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
 Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Government of Japan Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
 Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The European Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
 Memorandum Of Understanding Between The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Of The United States Of America And The Russian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation On The Civil International Space Station
 Principles Regarding Processes and Criteria for Selection, Assignment, Training and Certification of ISS (Expedition and Visiting) Crewmembers 

 

UNITED STATES INSTRUMENTS

 Commercial Space Act of 1998 [MS Word]
 Commercial Space Launch Activities Act [49 USC, Subtitle IX, Chapter 701]
 Commercial Space Transportation Competitiveness Act of 2000 [pdf]
 Communications Satellite Act
 International Maritime Satellite Telecommunications Act
 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act
 The National Aeronautics and Space Act
 Patents in Space [35 USC 105]
 Space Trade and Cooperation [22 USC 5871 et seq.]
 Agreement on Federal Interaction with Launch Site Operators
 AST Regulations

EXECUTIVE ORDERS & DIRECTIVES

 

PROPOSED LEGISLATION

 H.R. 2504 – Zero Gravity, Zero Tax Act of 2001 (July 16, 2001) [pdf]
 H.R. 2443 – Space Tourism Promotion Act of 2001 (July 10, 2001) [pdf]
 H.R. 2426 – Remote Sensing Applications Act of 2001 (June 28, 2001) [pdf]
 H.R. 2177 – Invest in Space Now Act of 2001 (June 14, 2001) [pdf]
 H.R. 1931 – Spaceport Equality Act (May 22, 2001) [pdf]
 H. CON. RES. 107 – Expressing a declaration of space leadership (April 25, 2001) [pdf]
 S 1250 [NASA Authorization for Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999 (Introduced in the Senate)]
 HR 1275 [1997 NASA Authorization]
 International Space Station Draft Regulations Concerning Advertising
 Licensing and Safety Requirements for Operation of a Launch Site
 Commercial Space Transportation Reusable Launch Vehicle and Reentry Licensing [Notice of Proposed Rulemaking – April 21, 1999]
 Expected Casualty Calculations for Commercial Space Launch and Reentry Missions [Draft Advisory Circular, AC 431.35-1, April 12, 1999]
 Reusable Launch Vehicle System Safety Process [Draft Advisory Circular, AC 431.35-2, April 16, 1999]

OTHER NATIONAL DOCUMENTS

Australia
 Space Activities Act of 1998 [Assented to 21 December 1998]
 Launching Safely into Space – Proposed Safety Regime for the Australian Space Launch Industry [pdf]

Argentina
 Creation of the National Commission on Space Activities, National Decree No. 995/91
 Establishment of the National Registry of Objects Launched into Outer Space [pdf]

Brazil
 Law Establishing the Brazilian Space Agency, Law No. 8.854 of 10 February 1984 [Portuguese]
 Resolution on Commercial Launching Activites from Brazilian Territory, Resolution No. 51 (26 January 2001) [Portuguese]
 Regulation on Procedures and on Definition of Necessary Requirements for the Request, Evaluation, Issuance, Follow-up and Supervision of Licenses for Carrying out Launching Space Activities on Brazilian Territory, Portaria AEB (Administrative Edict), No. 27

Canada
 Canadian Space Agency Act

Chile
 Establishment of a Presidential Advisory Committee known as the Chilean Space Agency, Supreme Decree No. 338

China
 China’s Space Activities

European Community
Convention For The Establishment Of A European Space Agency

 supplement to Directive 91/263/EEC in respect of satellite earth station equipment [93/97/EEC]
 on the introduction of satellite personal communication services in the Community [93/C 339/01]

Japan
 Law Concerning National Space Development Agency of Japan, Law No. 50 of 23 June 1969, as amended
 Law concerning Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Law Number 161 of 13th December 2002

Norway
 Act on Launching Objects from Norwegian Territory into Outer Space, No. 38, 13 June 1969

Russian Federation
 About structure of management of space activity in Russian Federation, Presidential Edict No. 185 (25 February 1992)
 On the Organization of the Further Utilization of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Interests of the Russian Federation’s Space Activity, Presidential Edict No. 2005 (24 October 1994)
 About Space Activity, Decree 5663-1
 Statute on Licensing Space Operations, Decree No. 104 (2 February 1996)
 On Measures to Fulfil the Russian Federal Space Program and International Space Agreements, Decree No. 422 (12 April 1996)
 Regulations of the Russian Space Agency, Resolution No. 468 (15 May 1995)

South Africa
 Space Affairs Act (1993)
 Space Affairs Amendment Act (1995)

Spain
 Establishment in Spain of the Registry of Objects Launched into Outer Space Royal Decree No. 278-1995

Sweden
 Act on Space Activities (1982)
 Decree on Space Activities (1982)

Ukraine
 Ordinance of the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine on Space Activity (15 November 1996)

United Kingdom
 Outer Space Act (1986)

Articles and Essays

 Acenbrak, Spacelift 2025: The Supporting Pillar for Space Superiority
 Air University, Spacecast 2020
 Barnes, Virtual Space Control: A Broader Perspective [pdf]
 Battaglia, A Survey of the Italian Space Debris Related Activities
 Bell, Bender & Carey, Planetary Asteroid Defense Study
 Belote, The Weaponization of Space: It Doesn’t Happen in a Vacuum
 Billman, The Inherent Limitations of Spacepower: Fact or Fiction?
 Bruner, National Security Implications of Inexpensive Space Access
 Collins, Legal Considerations for Traffic Systems in Near-Earth Space
 Collins, The Regulatory Reform Agenda for the Era of Passenger Space Transportation
 Collins & Ashford, Potential Economic Implications of the Development of Space Tourism
 Collins & Williams, Towards Traffic Control Systems for Near-Earth Space
 Collins & Yonemoto, Legal and Regulatory Issues for Passenger Space Travel
 Curry, Legal Implications Relating to International Cooperation
 Danilenko, Outer Space and the Multilateral Treaty-Making Process
 Davis, Internationalization of Space: Increasing Cooperation with Our Allies
 Fought, Legal Aspects of the Commercialization of Space Transportation Systems
 Greaves & Greer, The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Acquisition and Combat Capability
 Gupta, New Satellite Images For Sale: The Opportunities and Risks Ahead
 Hashimoto, The Space Plane and International Space Law
 Hashimoto, The Status of Astronauts Towards The Second Generation of Space Law 
 Hermida, Argentine Space Law And Policy
 Lafferanderie, Space Law Relevant to Astronomy
 Lessard, An Update on Canadian Space Activities
 Lootens, Space Force 2020: A Force for the Future
 McKinley, The Guardians of Space: Organizing America’s Space Assets for the Twenty-First Century
 Mendell, The Need for a New Political Covenant on Human Spaceflight
 Meyer, Arms Control Options in and from Space [pdf]
 Millsap, Organizational Options for the Future Aerospace Force
 Newberry, Space Doctrine for the 21st Century
 Oberg, Space Power Theory
 O’Neill, Alternative Plan for U.S. National Space Program
 Patterson, China’s Space Program and Its Implications for the United States [pdf]
 Platoff, Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon
 Potomac Institute, The International Space Station Commercialization Study
 Raymond, Spaceports and Airports: A Historical Comparison
 Rife, On Space-Power Separatism
 Roberts, Ensuring the Best of All Possible Worlds: Environmental Regulation of the Solar System
 Roberts, A Lost Connection: Geostationary Satellite Networks and the International Telecommunication Union
 Roberts, Needed: A Private Property Standard for Space
 Roberts, Planning a Trip Into Space? Bring Your Lawyer Along for the Ride
 Roberts, Space Business Incentives: It’s Time to Act
 Roberts, Pace & Reynolds, Playing the Commercial Space Game: Time for a New Rulebook?
 Schroeder, Developments in Agreements on International Trade in Commercial Launch Services
 Schrogl, Basic Space Science in a Future UNCOPUOS: Emphasizing the Role of Developing Countries
 Shaw, The Influence of Space Power upon History (1944-1998)
 Silber, A Little Piece of Heaven
 Smith, NASAS Space Station Program: Testimony Before The Subcommittee On Space And Aeronautics, U.S. House Of Representatives [1999]
 Spencer and Cashin, Space and Air Force: Rhetoric or Reality?
 Stapp, Space Dominance: How the Air Force Plans to Control Space
 Tatsuzawa, The Regulation of Commercial Space Activities by Non-Governmental Entities in Space Law
 Tatsuzawa, Space Commercialisation Law and Policy in Japan
 U.S. Army, Army Space Reference Text
 Wasser, How To Get Private Enterprise To Pay For Permanent Space Settlements
 White, Implications of a Proposal for Real Property Rights In Outer Space
 Woods, NASA, Post-Apollo and the Rise of the Space Shuttle: A Glance at the Definition of a Launch Vehicle [pdf]

Reports and Position Papers

United States Congressional Research Service
 CRS, China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy – Background and Chronology 1998 [pdf]
 CRS, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An Overview and FY1999 Budget Analysis [pdf]
 CRS, National Missile Defense: Status of the Debate 1998 [pdf]

United States Department of Defense
 DoD, Army Space Policy
 DoD, DoD Policy on the Use of Former Soviet Union Propulsion in Space Launch Vehicles
 DoD, DoD Space Policy, July 1999 [pdf]

United States General Accounting Office
 GAO, Defense Space Activities: Continuation of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program’s Progress to Date Subject to Some Uncertainity [2004] PDF
 GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Space-Based Radar Effort Needs Additional Knowledge before Starting Development [2004] PDF
 GAO, Defense Space Activities: Additional Actions Needed to Implement Human Capital Strategy and Develop Space Personnel [2004] PDF
 GAO, NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits [2004] PDF
 GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisition Policy to Optimize Growing Investment in Space [2004] PDF
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Further Improvements Needed in NASA’s Modernization Efforts [2004] PDF
 GAO, NASA: Shuttle Fleet’s Safe Return to Flight Is Key to Space Station Progress [2004] PDF
 GAO, Defense Acquisitions: Despite Restructuring, SBIRS High Program Remains at Risk of Cost and Schedule Overruns [2004] PDF
 GAO, Military Space Operations: Common Problems and Their Effects on Satellite and Related Acquisitions [2003] PDF
 GAO, Missile Defense: Alternate Approaches to Space Tracking and Surveillance System Need to Be Considered [2003] PDF
 GAO, Space Transportation: Challenges Facing NASA’s Space Launch Initiative [2002] PDF
 GAO, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Leadership and Systems Needed to Effect Financial Management Improvements [2002] PDF
 GAO, Space Surveillance Network: New Way Proposed To Support Commercial and Foreign Entities [2002] PDF
 GAO, NASA: Better Mechanisms Needed for Sharing Lessons Learned [2002] PDF
 GAO, NASA: Status of Plans for Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges [2002] PDF
 GAO, Export Controls: Clarification of Jurisdiction for Missile Technology Items Needed [2002] PDF
 GAO, NASA’s X-33 and X-34 Programs [2001] PDF
 GAO, NASA: International Space Station and Shuttle Support Cost Limits [2001] PDF
 GAO, NASA: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges [2001] PDF
 GAO, Space Transportation: Critical Areas NASA Needs to Address in Managing Its Reusable Launch Vehicle Program [2001] PDF
 GAO, Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure [2001] PDF
 GAO, Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: National Aeronautics and Space Administration [2001] PDF
 GAO, Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers [2000] PDF
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention [2000] PDF
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Human Capital and Safety Upgrade Challenges Require Continued Attention [2000] PDF
 GAO, Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements [2000] PDF
 GAO, Export Controls: Better Interagency Coordination Needed on Satellite Exports [1999]
 GAO, Space Station: Cost to Operate After Assembly is Uncertain, Letter Report [1999]
 GAO, Space Station: Russian Commitment and Cost Control Problems, Letter Report [1999]
 GAO, Space Station: Status of Russian Involvement and Cost Control Efforts, Testimony [1999]
 GAO, Space Transportation: Progress of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, Testimony [1999]
 GAO, Space Transportation: Status of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, Letter Report [1999]
 GAO, International Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements [1998]
 GAO, Space Exploration: Power Sources for Deep Space Probes [1998]
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Upgrade Activities and Carryover Balances [1998]
 GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Problems [1998]
 GAO, Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements [1998]
 GAO, Space Surveillance: DOD and NASA Need Consolidated Requirements and a Coordinated Plan [1998]
 GAO, Access to Space: Issues Associated With DOD’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Prog… [1997]
 GAO, Defense Satellite Communications: Alternative to DOD’s Satellite Replacement Plan… [1997]
 GAO, NASA: Major Management Challenges [1997]
 GAO, Results Act: Observations on NASA’s May 1997 Draft Strategic Plan [1997]
 GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen [1997]
 GAO, Weather Satellites: Planning for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Prog…[1997]
 GAO, Earth Observing System: Concerns Over NASA’s Basic Research Funding Strategy [1996]
 GAO, NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies [1996]
 GAO, NASA Infrastructure: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies [1996]
 GAO, NASA Personnel: Challenges to Achieving Workforce Reductions [1996]
 GAO, Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Costs Savings [1996]
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Need to Sustain Launch Risk Assessment Process Improvements [1996]
 GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue [1996]
 GAO, Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue [1996]
 GAO, NASA Budgets: Gap Betw. Funding Requirements & Projected Budgets Has Been Reopened [1995]
 GAO, NASA’s Earth Observing System: Estimated Funding Requirements [1995]
 GAO, Space Shuttle: Declining Budget and Tight Schedule Could Jeopardize Space Station Support [1995]
 GAO, Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate W/n Future Projected Funds [1995]
 GAO, Space Station: Estimated Total U.S. Funding Requirements [1995]
 GAO, NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms [1994]
 GAO, National Space Issues: Observations on Defense Space Programs and Activities [1994]
 GAO, Space Shuttle: NASA’s Plans for Repairing or Replacing a Damaged or Destroyed Orbiter [1994]
 GAO, Space Station: Plans to Expand Research Community Do Not Match Available Resources [1994]
 GAO, Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role (Letter Report) [1994]
 GAO, Space Science: Causes & Impacts of Cutbacks to NASA’s Outer Solar System Exploration…[1993]

United States House of Representatives
 Select Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China (The “Cox Report”)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
 NASA, Cassini Final Environmental Impact Statement
 NASA, Commercial Space Transportation Study
 NASA, Final Environmental Impact Statement of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator
 NASA, NASA Oversight of Russian Biotechnology Research [2000]
 NASA, Office of Space Science Technology Policy
 NASA, Principal Recommendations of the Augustine Commission [1990]
 NASA, Strategic Plan

National Research Council
 NRC, Orbital Debris: A Technical Assessment [1995]
 NRC, Views of the Committee on Radio Frequencies Concerning Frequency Allocations for the Passive Services at the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference [1995]

NSTC
 NSTC, Interagency Report on Orbital Debris [1995]

Office of Commercial Space Transportation
 OCST, The Effects of Parachutes on Risk Mitigation to Third Party Property Individuals
 OCST, Financial Responsibility for Reentry Vehicle Operation
 OCST, Guidelines for Compliance with the NEPA, et al. for the Development of Commercial Space Launch
 OCST, Hazard Analysis of Commercial Space Transportation
 OCST, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Commercial Reentry Vehicles
 OCST, Risk Sensitive Assessment of Flight Termination System on Reentry Vehicles
 OCST, Space Applications of Radioactive Materials
 OCST, Voluntary Industry Standards and Their Relationship to Government Programs

Office of Technology Assessment
 OTA, The National Space Transportation Policy: Issues for Congress [1995]
 OTA, U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Space [1995]
 OTA, The Future of Remote Sensing From Space: Civilian Satellite Systems and Applications [1993]
 OTA, Exploring the Moon and Mars: Choices for the Nation [1991]
 OTA, Access to Space: The Future of U.S. Space Transportation Systems [1990]
 OTA, Orbiting Debris: A Space Environmental Problem [1990]
 OTA, Verification Technologies: Measures for Monitoring Compliance With the START Treaty [1990]
 OTA, Space Stations and the Law: Selected Legal Issues [1986]
 OTA, Civilian Space Policy and Applications [1982]

United Nations
 UN, Int’l Cooperation in Space Activities for Enhancing Security in the Post-Cold War Era
 UN, Questionnaire On Possible Legal Issues…: Replies From Member States
 UN, Report Of The Legal Subcommittee Of COPUOS On The Work Of Its Thirty-fifth Session [1996]
 UN, Report of the 2nd UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space [1982]

LESSON PLANS & SYLLABI

 Coordinate Systems Overview
 Resources From Space
 General Principles of Space Law
 Law of Space Applications
 Government Regulation of Space Activities
 Space Politics and Policy [pdf]

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